Romaric LUDINARD

Poste

Maitre de conférences

Localisation

Rennes

Coordonnées :

Tél.

+33 2 99 12 24 03
Biographie

I am currently associate professor at IMT Atlantique. Before that, I was associate professor at ENSAI, the national school for Statistics and Information Analysis during two years. I was head of the Data scientist specialization, and head of the computer science team. Before that, I was research and teaching assistant at University of Rennes during one year.

My research mainly focuses on models, safety and performance of distributed systems. I felt in these fields just after having received my engineering degree in computer science from University of Rennes 1 in 2006. At this time, I have started working on fault tolerance in the specific field of intrusion detection systems in the context of DADDi project. Then, I worked on  byzantine fault tolerance in large scale distributed systems in the context of P2PIm@ges project. In 2010, I joined Supelec for one year to work on anomaly based intrusion detection systems in the context of DALI project. In 2011, I was funded by Inria and Technicolor to prepare my phD on fault characterization in large scale networks.

I am currently focusing my research on Blockchain protocols and their guarantees.

  • 2016/2017 --- Projet Exploratoire Premier Soutien "Sécurité Informatique et des Systèmes Cyberphysiques" (PEPS SISC) CNRS BIPs
  • Since 09/2015 --- Associate Professor at Ensai, Head of Data Scientist Specialization
  • 02/2015 - 08/2015 --- PostDoc at Research Center for Cyber Intelligence and Information Security, Université La Sapienza, Rome
  • 09/2014 - 08/2014 --- Researching and teaching assistant at Université Rennes 1
  • 05/2011 - 08/2014 --- PhD Student in Dionysos team
  • 04/2010 - 04/2011 --- Research engineer in Dali project
  • 11/2007 - 03/2010 --- Research engineer in P2PIm@ges project
  • 10/2006 - 09/2007 --- Research engineer in DADDi project
  • 2006 --- Internship at France Télécom R & D--- Implementation and simulation of p2p protocols
  • 2005 --- Internship at Inria--- Implementation and simulation of SAM : self-* atomic memory for P2P systems

Talks

  • March'18 : Keynote Speaker at BART Initiative official launch
  • Oct'17 : Presentation about Blockchain as a Distributed Shared Register Workshop on Blockchain Technology and Theory, colocated with Disc Conference
  • Jun'17 : Panel debate on Blockchain at ESEO Video
  • Jun'17 : Presentation about Blockchain and distributed agreement protocols at BlockSem Seminar
  • May'17 : Presentation about the danger of blockchain forks and fork avoidance at Open Source Innovation Spring 2017
  • April'17 : Presentation blockchain conflict preventions at ACM SAC 2017
  • March'17 : Presentation on Blockchain based protocols safety at LS2N - Laboratoire des Sciences du Numérique de Nantes
  • March'17 : Presentation on Bitcoin and Blockchain at Institut d'Economie et de Management de Nantes - IAE
  • January'17 : Presentation of my work on Bitcoin and safety analysis of recent improvement proposals at RESCOM days
  • November'16 : Invited speaker at Blockchains day, organized by French Computer Science Society Talk
  • October'16 : Seminar on Bitcoin at Université La Sapienza, Rome
  • June 2016 : Presentation of my work on Blockchain improvement proposals and safety assessment at DSN'16
  • May 2016 : Presentation of my work on Blockchain improvement proposals and safety assessment at AlgoTel'16
  • June 2014 : Presentation of my work on fault characterization in large scale systems at DSN'14
  • May 2014 : Presentation of my work on fault characterization in large scale systems at AlgoTel'14
  • November 2013 : Presentation of my work on local fault characterization in large scale systems at Technicolor WOS 3
  • October 2013 : Presentation of my work on local fault characterization in large scale systems at SRDS'13
  • May 2013 : Presentation of my work application logic preserving DHT at AlgoTel'13
  • December 2012 : Presentation of my work application logic preserving DHT at Opodis'12
  • October 2012 : Presentation of my work on anomaly detection in web applications at CRISIS'12
  • June 2011 : Presentation of my work on anomaly detection in web applications at SSTIC'11
  • May 2011 : Presentation of my work on DHT resilience to eclipse attacks at CFIP'11
  • October 2008 : Presentation of my work on Byzantine tolerant DHT at SASO'08

Committees

  • TPC at SSTIC'12, '13, '14, NCA 2017
  • Reviewer at Elsevier Performance Evaluation
  • Subreviewer at NOTERE'12, PODC'15, SRDS'15, TRUSTCOM'15, AlgoTel'15, SRDS'16, NCA'16, DISC'17, ICDCN'18

Conference organization

Publications list

Journals :

  • Performance Evaluation of a Peer-to-peer Backup System using Buffering at the Edge pdf
    Computer Communications, October 2014
    with A. Kermarrec, E. Le Merrer, N. Le Scouarnec, P. Maillé, G. Straub and A. Van Kempen
     
  • An Invariant-based Approach for Detecting Attacks against Data in Web Applications pdf
    International Journal of Secure Software Engineering, January 2014
    with E. Totel, F. Tronel, V. Nicomette, M. Kaaniche, E. Alata, R. Akrout and Y. Bachy
     
  • Markov Chains Competing for Transitions: Application to Large-Scale Distributed Systems pdf
    Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability, June 2013
    with E. Anceaume, F. Castella and B. Sericola
     
  • Performance evaluation of large-scale dynamic systems pdf
    ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review, 2012
    with E. Anceaume and B. Sericola
     
  • Dependability Evaluation of Cluster-Based Distributed Systems pdf
    International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, August 2011
    with E. Anceaume, F. Brasileiro, B. Sericola and F. Tronel

Regular papers :

  • Bitcoin a Distributed Shared Register
    Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS'17)2017
    with E. Anceaume, M. Potop-Butucaru and F. Tronel
  • Handling Bitcoin Conflict through a Glimpse of Structure
    Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC'17), 2017
    with T. Lajoie-Mazenc and E. Anceaume
  • Safety Analysis of Bitcoin Improvement Proposals pdf
    Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA 2016)
    with E. Anceaume, T. Lajoie-Mazenc and B. Sericola
  • Anomaly Characterization in Large Scale Networks pdf
    Proceedings of the 44th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2014)
    with E. Anceaume, Y. Busnel, J.L. Marchand, E. Le Merrer and B. Sericola
  • FixMe: A Self-organizing Isolated Anomaly Detection Architecture for Large Scale Distributed Systems pdf
    Proceedings of the 16th International Conference On Principles Of DIstributed Systems (OPODIS 2012)
    with E. Anceaume, E. Le Merrer, B. Sericola and G. Straub
  • Detecting Attacks against Data in Web Applications pdf
    Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Risks and Security of Internet and Systems (CRISIS 2012)
    with E. Totel, F. Tronel, V. Nicomette, M. Kaaniche, E. Alata, R. Akrout and Y. Bachy
  • Modeling and Evaluating Targeted Attacks in Large Scale Dynamic Systems pdf
    Proceedings of the 41st Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2011) - The Performance and Dependability Symposium (PDS)
    with E. Anceaume and B. Sericola and F. Tronel
  • Analytic Study of the Impact of Churn in Cluster-Based Structured P2P Overlays pdf
    Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2010)
    with E. Anceaume and B. Sericola
  • PeerCube: An Hypercube-based P2P overlay robust against collusion and churn pdf
    Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems (SASO 2008)
    with E. Anceaume and F. Brasileiro and A. Ravoaja

Thesis :

    Caractérisation locale de fautes dans les systèmes large échelle pdf defense (french)

 

Briefs :

  • Relying on Consensus does not Make Bitcoin Safer pdf
    Fast Abstract in the 46th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2016)
    with E. Anceaume and B. Sericola
     
  • Anomaly Filtering in Large Scale Systems pdf
    32nd International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS 2013)
  • Brief Announcement: Induced Churn to Face Adversarial Behavior in Peer-to-Peer Systems pdf
    Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS 2009)
    with E. Anceaume and B. Sericola and F. Tronel and F. Brasileiro

Workshops :

  • A Self-organising Isolated Anomaly Detection Architecture for Large Scale Systems pdf
    Nem Summit 2013
    with E. Anceaume, E. Le Merrer, B. Sericola and G. Straub
  • Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays pdf
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Reliability, Availability, and Security (WRAS) in conjunction with the International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT) 2009
    with E. Anceaume and B. Sericola and F. Tronel and F. Brasileiro

National conferences :

  • L'empire romain ne doit pas être géré comme une petite île grecque pdf
    Actes des 18èmes Rencontres Francophones pour les Aspects Algorithmiques des Télécommunications (AlgoTel 2016)
    with E. Anceaume, and B. Sericola
     
  • Anomaly Characterization Problems pdf
    Actes des 16èmes Rencontres Francophones pour les Aspects Algorithmiques des Télécommunications (AlgoTel 2014)
    with E. Anceaume, Y. Busnel, E. Le Merrer, J. L. Marchand, B. Sericola and G. Straub
  • FixMe : détection répartie de défaillances isolées pdf
    Actes des 15èmes Rencontres Francophones pour les Aspects Algorithmiques des Télécommunications (AlgoTel 2013)
    with E. Anceaume, E. Le Merrer, B. Sericola and G. Straub
  • RRABIDS, un système de détection d’intrusion pour les applications Ruby on Rails pdf
    Actes du Symposium sur la sécurité des technologies de l'information et des communications (SSTIC 2011)
    with L. Le Hennaff and É. Totel
  • Modélisation et Evaluation des Attaques Ciblées dans un Overlay Structuré pdf
    Actes du Colloque Francophone sur l'Ingenierie des Protocoles (CFIP 2011)
    with E. Anceaume, B. Sericola and F. Tronel

Patents

  • Network system and method for checking plausibility of a value returned by a device
    Patent N° 14306449.1 of the European Patent Office, September 2014.
    with E. Le Merrer, N. Le Scouarnec
     
  • Method for isolated anomaly detection in large-scale audio/video/data processing systems.
    Patent N° 13306029.3 of the European Patent Office, July 2013.
    with E. Le Merrer, B. Sericola, G. Straub
  • Method for isolated anomaly detection in large-scale data processing systems.
    Patent N° 12306237.4 of the European Patent Office, October 2012.
    with E. Le Merrer, B. Sericola, G. Straub
2017 - 2018 IMT Atlantique - Intersemestre Blockchains - 21h
IMT Atlantique, Programmation réseau, 42h
IMT Atlantique, Architectures Big Data, 21h
 

 

2016 - 2017 ENSAI, 3è année, Systèmes distribués, 21h CM
ENSAI, 1ère année, Programmation orientée objet, 10,5h CM
ENSAI, 1ère année, Algorithmique et programmation, 4h30 TD / 19h30 TP

ENSAI, 1ère année, Atelier de modélisation et programmation objet, 18h TP
 

2015 - 2016 ENSAI, 3è année, Systèmes distribués, 21h CM
ENSAI, Msc Big Data, Parallelized systems, 18h CM
ENSAI, 1ère année, Algorithmique et programmation, 4h30 TD / 19h30 TP
ENSAI, 1ère année, Atelier de modélisation et programmation objet, 18h TP
 
2014 - 2015 Université Rennes 1, Licence 1, Algorithmique fonctionnelle, 20h TD / 20h TP
Université Rennes 1, Licence 2, Mathématiques pour l'informatique, 36h TD
Université Rennes 1 / ISTIC, Licence 3, Algorithmique des graphes, 20h TD
Université Rennes 1 / ISTIC, Licence 3, Algorithmique et programmation, 34h Cours-TD, 22h TP
Université Rennes 1 / ISTIC, Master 1, Atelier de conception objet, 56h Projet
Université Rennes 1, Licence 1, Bureautique et préparation au C2I, 20h TP
Université Rennes 1 / ISTIC, Mises à niveau en informatique, 12h TP
 
2013 - 2014 ENSAI, 1ère année, Programmation orientée objet, 27h TP
Publications HAL
Communication dans un congrès
Anceaume Emmanuelle, Guellier Adeline, Ludinard Romaric, Sericola Bruno
Sycomore : un registre de transactions distribué et public au débit auto-adaptatif
ALGOTEL 2019 - 21èmes Rencontres Francophones sur les Aspects Algorithmiques des Télécommunications, Jun 2019, Saint Laurent de la Cabrerisse, France. pp.1-4
Bibtext :
@inproceedings{anceaume:hal-02117968,
TITLE = {{Sycomore : un registre de transactions distribu{\'e} et public au d{\'e}bit auto-adaptatif}},
AUTHOR = {Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Guellier, Adeline and Ludinard, Romaric and Sericola, Bruno},
URL = {https://hal.inria.fr/hal-02117968},
BOOKTITLE = {{ALGOTEL 2019 - 21{\`e}mes Rencontres Francophones sur les Aspects Algorithmiques des T{\'e}l{\'e}communications}},
ADDRESS = {Saint Laurent de la Cabrerisse, France},
PAGES = {1-4},
YEAR = {2019},
MONTH = Jun,
PDF = {https://hal.inria.fr/hal-02117968/file/sycomore-algotel.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-02117968},
HAL_VERSION = {v1},
}
Endnote :
%0 Conference Proceedings
%T Sycomore : un registre de transactions distribué et public au débit auto-adaptatif
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Génie Enzymatique et Cellulaire (GEC)
%+ Advanced technologies for operated networks (ADOPNET)
%+ Département Systèmes Réseaux, Cybersécurité et Droit du numérique (IMT Atlantique - SRCD)
%+ Dependability Interoperability and perfOrmance aNalYsiS Of networkS (DIONYSOS)
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Guellier, Adeline
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%A Sericola, Bruno
%< avec comité de lecture
%B ALGOTEL 2019 - 21èmes Rencontres Francophones sur les Aspects Algorithmiques des Télécommunications
%C Saint Laurent de la Cabrerisse, France
%P 1-4
%8 2019-06-04
%D 2019
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]Conference papers
%X Bitcoin est un système pair-à-pair de crypto-devises considéré comme l’un des pionniers de ce type de système. Lablockchain, une structure de donnée particulière, est la clé de voûte de ce système. Celle-ci est mise à jour régulièrementpar l’ajout d’une nouvelle séquence de transactions. La fréquence des mises à jour constante, couplée à une bornemaximale sur les transactions incluses dans celles-ci induit un débit d’enregistrement maximal borné. Cette limite,relativement basse, est l’un des freins à l’essor de Bitcoin. Cet article présente une structure de données alternativeorientée graphe permettant de s’adapter dynamiquement au besoin d’enregistrement de transactions.
%G French
%2 https://hal.inria.fr/hal-02117968/document
%2 https://hal.inria.fr/hal-02117968/file/sycomore-algotel.pdf
%L hal-02117968
%U https://hal.inria.fr/hal-02117968
%~ UNIV-PICARDIE
%~ UNIV-COMPIEGNE
%~ UNIV-UBS
%~ INRIA-RENNES
%~ IRISA_SET
%~ UNIV-RENNES1
%~ CNRS
%~ INRIA_TEST
%~ SUP_CIDRE
%~ UR1-HAL
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC
%~ IRISA
%~ INRIA
%~ IMT-ATLANTIQUE
%~ IMTA_SRCD
%~ TEST-UR-CSS
%~ UNIV-RENNES
%~ INRIA-RENGRE
%~ IRISA-ADOPNET-IMTA
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY-VP
%~ UR1-MATH-STIC
%~ UR1-UFR-ISTIC
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY
%~ IRISA_IMTA
%~ UNIV-PARIS-SACLAY
%~ IRISA-DIONYSOS-IMTA
%~ PRACOM
Communication dans un congrès
Anceaume Emmanuelle, Guellier Adeline, Ludinard Romaric, Sericola Bruno
Sycomore : un registre de transactions distribué et public au débit auto-adaptatif
ALGOTEL 2019 - 21èmes Rencontres Francophones sur les Aspects Algorithmiques des Télécommunications, Jun 2019, Saint Laurent de la Cabrerisse, France. pp.1-4
Bibtext :
@inproceedings{anceaume:hal-02118385,
TITLE = {{Sycomore : un registre de transactions distribu{\'e} et public au d{\'e}bit auto-adaptatif}},
AUTHOR = {Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Guellier, Adeline and Ludinard, Romaric and Sericola, Bruno},
URL = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02118385},
BOOKTITLE = {{ALGOTEL 2019 - 21{\`e}mes Rencontres Francophones sur les Aspects Algorithmiques des T{\'e}l{\'e}communications}},
ADDRESS = {Saint Laurent de la Cabrerisse, France},
PAGES = {1-4},
YEAR = {2019},
MONTH = Jun,
PDF = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02118385/file/sycomore-algotel.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-02118385},
HAL_VERSION = {v1},
}
Endnote :
%0 Conference Paper
%F Oral
%T Sycomore : un registre de transactions distribué et public au débit auto-adaptatif
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Génie Enzymatique et Cellulaire (GEC)
%+ IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire (IMT Atlantique)
%+ Advanced technologies for operated networks (ADOPNET)
%+ Dependability Interoperability and perfOrmance aNalYsiS Of networkS (DIONYSOS)
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Guellier, Adeline
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%A Sericola, Bruno
%< avec comité de lecture
%B ALGOTEL 2019 - 21èmes Rencontres Francophones sur les Aspects Algorithmiques des Télécommunications
%C Saint Laurent de la Cabrerisse, France
%P 1-4
%8 2019-06-04
%D 2019
%Z Computer Science [cs]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Conference papers
%X Bitcoin est un système pair-à-pair de crypto-devises considéré comme l’un des pionniers de ce type de système. Lablockchain, une structure de donnée particulière, est la clé de voûte de ce système. Celle-ci est mise à jour régulièrementpar l’ajout d’une nouvelle séquence de transactions. La fréquence des mises à jour constante, couplée à une bornemaximale sur les transactions incluses dans celles-ci induit un débit d’enregistrement maximal borné. Cette limite,relativement basse, est l’un des freins à l’essor de Bitcoin. Cet article présente une structure de données alternativeorientée graphe permettant de s’adapter dynamiquement au besoin d’enregistrement de transactions.
%G French
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02118385/document
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02118385/file/sycomore-algotel.pdf
%L hal-02118385
%U https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02118385
%~ UNIV-UBS
%~ INRIA-RENNES
%~ IRISA_SET
%~ UNIV-RENNES1
%~ CNRS
%~ INRIA_TEST
%~ SUP_CIDRE
%~ UR1-HAL
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC
%~ IRISA
%~ INRIA
%~ TEST-UR-CSS
%~ UNIV-RENNES
%~ INRIA-RENGRE
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY-VP
%~ UR1-MATH-STIC
%~ UR1-UFR-ISTIC
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY
%~ UNIV-PARIS-SACLAY
%~ ALGOTEL2019
%~ UNIV-PICARDIE
%~ UNIV-COMPIEGNE
Rapport
Anceaume Emmanuelle, Del Pozzo Antonella, Ludinard Romaric, Potop-Butucaru Maria, Tucci Piergiovanni Sara
Blockchain Abstract Data Type -Full version
[Research Report] CNRS - IRISA. 2019, pp.1-29
Bibtext :
@techreport{anceaume:hal-02113770,
TITLE = {{Blockchain Abstract Data Type -Full version}},
AUTHOR = {Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Del Pozzo, Antonella and Ludinard, Romaric and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Tucci Piergiovanni, Sara},
URL = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02113770},
TYPE = {Research Report},
PAGES = {1-29},
INSTITUTION = {{CNRS - IRISA}},
YEAR = {2019},
MONTH = Apr,
KEYWORDS = {Abstract Data Type ; Consistency Criteria ; Blockchain},
PDF = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02113770/file/mainSPAA_Tech_Report.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-02113770},
HAL_VERSION = {v1},
}
Endnote :
%0 Report
%T Blockchain Abstract Data Type -Full version
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Département Ingénierie Logiciels et Systèmes (DILS)
%+ Advanced technologies for operated networks (ADOPNET)
%+ Sorbonne, Lip6, Npa, Lincs
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Del Pozzo, Antonella
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%A Potop-Butucaru, Maria
%A Tucci Piergiovanni, Sara
%P 1-29
%I CNRS - IRISA
%8 2019-04-29
%D 2019
%K Abstract Data Type
%K Consistency Criteria
%K Blockchain
%Z Computer Science [cs]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Reports
%X The presented work continues the line of recent distributed computing community efforts dedicated to the theoretical aspects of blockchains. This paper is the first to specify blockchains as a composition of abstract data types all together with a hierarchy of consistency criteria that formally characterizes the histories admissible for distributed programs that use them. Our work is based on an original oracle-based construction that, along with new consistency definitions, captures the eventual convergence process in blockchain systems. The paper presents as well some results on implementability of the presented abstractions and a mapping of representative existing blockchains from both academia and industry in our framework.
%G English
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02113770/document
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02113770/file/mainSPAA_Tech_Report.pdf
%L hal-02113770
%U https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02113770
%~ UNIV-UBS
%~ INRIA-RENNES
%~ IRISA_SET
%~ UNIV-RENNES1
%~ CNRS
%~ CEA
%~ INRIA_TEST
%~ CEA-UPSAY
%~ SUP_CIDRE
%~ LARA
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC
%~ CEA-UPSAY-SACLAY
%~ IRISA
%~ INRIA
%~ DRT
%~ TEST-UR-CSS
%~ UNIV-RENNES
%~ INRIA-RENGRE
%~ LIST
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY-VP
%~ UR1-HAL
%~ UR1-MATH-STIC
%~ UNIV-PARIS-SACLAY
%~ UR1-UFR-ISTIC
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY
Pré-publication, Document de travail
Durand Antoine, Anceaume Emmanuelle, Ludinard Romaric
STAKECUBE: Combining Sharding and Proof-of-Stake to build Fork-free Secure Permissionless Distributed Ledgers
2019
Bibtext :
@unpublished{durand:hal-02078072,
TITLE = {{STAKECUBE: Combining Sharding and Proof-of-Stake to build Fork-free Secure Permissionless Distributed Ledgers}},
AUTHOR = {Durand, Antoine and Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Ludinard, Romaric},
URL = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02078072},
NOTE = {working paper or preprint},
YEAR = {2019},
MONTH = Mar,
PDF = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02078072/file/StakeCube.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-02078072},
HAL_VERSION = {v1},
}
Endnote :
%0 Unpublished work
%T STAKECUBE: Combining Sharding and Proof-of-Stake to build Fork-free Secure Permissionless Distributed Ledgers
%+ Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Electronique, Informatique et Radiocommunications de Bordeaux (ENSEIRB)
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Advanced technologies for operated networks (ADOPNET)
%A Durand, Antoine
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%8 2019-03-25
%D 2019
%Z Computer Science [cs]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Preprints, Working Papers, ...
%X Our work focuses on the design of a scalable permissionless blockchain in the proof-of-stake setting. In particular, we use a distributed hash table as a building block to set up randomized shards, and then leverage the sharded architecture to validate blocks in an efficient manner. We combine verifiable Byzantine agreements run by shards of stakeholders and a block validation protocol to guarantee that forks occur with negligible probability. We impose induced churn to make shards robust to eclipse attacks, and we rely on the UTXO coin model to guarantee that any stake-holder action is securely verifiable by anyone. Our protocol works against adaptive adversary, and makes no synchrony assumption beyond what is required for the byzantine agreement.
%G English
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02078072/document
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02078072/file/StakeCube.pdf
%L hal-02078072
%U https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02078072
%~ CNRS
%~ UNIV-UBS
%~ INRIA-RENNES
%~ IRISA_SET
%~ UNIV-RENNES1
%~ INRIA_TEST
%~ TESTBORDEAUX
%~ SUP_CIDRE
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC
%~ IRISA
%~ INRIA
%~ TEST-UR-CSS
%~ UNIV-RENNES
%~ INRIA-RENGRE
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY-VP
%~ UR1-HAL
%~ UR1-MATH-STIC
%~ UR1-UFR-ISTIC
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY
%~ UNIV-PARIS-SACLAY
%~ ENSEIRB
%~ UNIV-BORDEAUX
Poster
Anceaume Emmanuelle, Pozzo Antonella, Ludinard Romaric, Potop-Butucaru Maria, Tucci-Piergiovanni Sara
POSTER: Blockchain Abstract Data Type
PPoPP 2019 - 24th ACM SIGPLAN Annual Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming, Feb 2019, Washington DC, United States. pp.1-2, ⟨10.1145/3293883.3303705⟩
Bibtext :
@misc{anceaume:hal-01988364,
TITLE = {{POSTER: Blockchain Abstract Data Type}},
AUTHOR = {Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Pozzo, Antonella Del and Ludinard, Romaric and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara},
URL = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01988364},
NOTE = {Poster},
HOWPUBLISHED = {{PPoPP 2019 - 24th ACM SIGPLAN Annual Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming}},
PAGES = {1-2},
YEAR = {2019},
MONTH = Feb,
DOI = {10.1145/3293883.3303705},
KEYWORDS = {Consistency Criteria ; Distributed computing models ; Blockchain ; Abstract Data Type},
PDF = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01988364/file/mainPPoPP.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-01988364},
HAL_VERSION = {v1},
}
Endnote :
%0 Conference Paper
%F Poster
%T POSTER: Blockchain Abstract Data Type
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Département Ingénierie Logiciels et Systèmes (DILS)
%+ IMT Atlantique Bretagne-Pays de la Loire (IMT Atlantique)
%+ Networks and Performance Analysis (NPA)
%+ Laboratoire d'Intégration des Systèmes et des Technologies (LIST)
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Pozzo, Antonella, Del
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%A Potop-Butucaru, Maria
%A Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
%< avec comité de lecture
%B PPoPP 2019 - 24th ACM SIGPLAN Annual Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming
%C Washington DC, United States
%P 1-2
%8 2019-02-16
%D 2019
%R 10.1145/3293883.3303705
%K Consistency Criteria
%K Distributed computing models
%K Blockchain
%K Abstract Data Type
%Z Computer Science [cs]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Poster communications
%X This paper is the first to specify blockchains as a composition of abstract data types all together with a hierarchy of consistency criteria that formally characterizes the histories admissible for distributed programs that use them. The paper presents as well some results on implementability of the presented abstractions and a mapping of representative existing blockchains from both academia and industry in our framework.
%G English
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01988364/document
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01988364/file/mainPPoPP.pdf
%L hal-01988364
%U https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01988364
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%~ SORBONNE-UNIV
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Communication dans un congrès
Anceaume Emmanuelle, Guellier Antoine, Ludinard Romaric, Sericola Bruno
Sycomore : a Permissionless Distributed Ledger that self-adapts to Transactions Demand
NCA 2018 - 17th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications, IEEE, Nov 2018, Boston, United States. pp.1-8, ⟨10.1109/NCA.2018.8548053⟩
Bibtext :
@inproceedings{anceaume:hal-01888265,
TITLE = {{Sycomore : a Permissionless Distributed Ledger that self-adapts to Transactions Demand}},
AUTHOR = {Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Guellier, Antoine and Ludinard, Romaric and Sericola, Bruno},
URL = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01888265},
BOOKTITLE = {{NCA 2018 - 17th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications}},
ADDRESS = {Boston, United States},
ORGANIZATION = {{IEEE}},
PUBLISHER = {{IEEE}},
PAGES = {1-8},
YEAR = {2018},
MONTH = Nov,
DOI = {10.1109/NCA.2018.8548053},
PDF = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01888265/file/sycomore.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-01888265},
HAL_VERSION = {v1},
}
Endnote :
%0 Conference Proceedings
%T Sycomore : a Permissionless Distributed Ledger that self-adapts to Transactions Demand
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Département Systèmes Réseaux, Cybersécurité et Droit du numérique (IMT Atlantique - SRCD)
%+ Advanced technologies for operated networks (ADOPNET)
%+ Dependability Interoperability and perfOrmance aNalYsiS Of networkS (DIONYSOS)
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Guellier, Antoine
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%A Sericola, Bruno
%< avec comité de lecture
%B NCA 2018 - 17th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications
%C Boston, United States
%I IEEE
%P 1-8
%8 2018-11-01
%D 2018
%R 10.1109/NCA.2018.8548053
%Z Computer Science [cs]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Conference papers
%X We propose a new way to organise both transactions and blocks in a distributed ledger to address the performance issues of permissionless ledgers. In contrast to most of the existing solutions in which the ledger is a chain of blocks extracted from a tree or a graph of chains, we present a distributed ledger whose structure is a balanced directed acyclic graph of blocks. We call this specific graph a SYC-DAG. We show that a SYC-DAG allows us to keep all the remarkable properties of the Bitcoin blockchain in terms of security, immutability, and transparency, while enjoying higher throughput and self-adaptivity to transactions demand. To the best of our knowledge, such a design has never been proposed so far.
%G English
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01888265/document
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01888265/file/sycomore.pdf
%L hal-01888265
%U https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01888265
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%~ UNIV-RENNES
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%~ IMTA_SRCD
%~ IMT-ATLANTIQUE
%~ IRISA-ADOPNET-IMTA
%~ IRISA_IMTA
%~ IRISA-DIONYSOS-IMTA
%~ PRACOM
Communication dans un congrès
Anceaume Emmanuelle, Guellier Antoine, Ludinard Romaric
UTXOs as a proof of membership for Byzantine Agreement based Cryptocurrencies
IEEE Symposium on Recent Advances on Blockchain and Its Applications, Jul 2018, Halifax, Canada. pp.1-8
Bibtext :
@inproceedings{anceaume:hal-01768190,
TITLE = {{UTXOs as a proof of membership for Byzantine Agreement based Cryptocurrencies}},
AUTHOR = {Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Guellier, Antoine and Ludinard, Romaric},
URL = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01768190},
BOOKTITLE = {{IEEE Symposium on Recent Advances on Blockchain and Its Applications}},
ADDRESS = {Halifax, Canada},
PUBLISHER = {{IEEE}},
SERIES = {Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE Confs on Internet of Things, Green Computing and Communications, Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Smart Data, Blockchain, Computer and Information Technology, Congress on Cybermatics},
PAGES = {1-8},
YEAR = {2018},
MONTH = Jul,
PDF = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01768190/file/UTXO.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-01768190},
HAL_VERSION = {v1},
}
Endnote :
%0 Conference Proceedings
%T UTXOs as a proof of membership for Byzantine Agreement based Cryptocurrencies
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Département Systèmes Réseaux, Cybersécurité et Droit du numérique (IMT Atlantique - SRCD)
%+ Advanced technologies for operated networks (ADOPNET)
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Guellier, Antoine
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%< avec comité de lecture
%B IEEE Symposium on Recent Advances on Blockchain and Its Applications
%C Halifax, Canada
%I IEEE
%3 Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE Confs on Internet of Things, Green Computing and Communications, Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Smart Data, Blockchain, Computer and Information Technology, Congress on Cybermatics
%P 1-8
%8 2018-07-30
%D 2018
%Z Computer Science [cs]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Conference papers
%X The presence of forks in permissionless blockchains is a recurrent issue. So far this has been handled either a posteriori, through local arbitration rules (e.g., " keep the branch which has required the most computational power ") which are applied once a fork is present in the blockchain, or a priori, via a Byzantine resilient agreement protocol periodically invoked by a committee of well identified and online nodes. In the former case, local arbitration rules guarantee that if they are correctly applied by a majority of the users of the system, then with high probability forks are progressively resolved, while in latter case, the sequence of Byzantine resilient agreements decide on the unique sequence of blocks to be appended to the blockchain. The question we may legitimately ask is the following one: To prevent the period of uncertainty inherent to optimistic-based solutions, are we doomed to rely on the decisions made by a unique committee whose members are already actively involved in the creation of blocs ? We negatively answer this question by presenting a solution that combines the best features of optimistic and pessimistic approaches: we leverage the presence of users and the " public-key as identities " principle to make users self-organize in small Byzantine resilient committees " around " each new object (i.e., blocks and transactions) to decide on their validity. Once validated, objects can be pushed in the network, appended to the blockchain without fearing any fork nor double spending attacks: we guarantee a " 0 "-confirmation delay. Additionally, our solution mitigates selfish attacks. We are not aware of any solutions enjoying such features.
%G English
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01768190/document
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01768190/file/UTXO.pdf
%L hal-01768190
%U https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01768190
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC
%~ SUP_CIDRE
%~ UNIV-PARIS-SACLAY
%~ CNRS
%~ UNIV-UBS
%~ INRIA-RENNES
%~ IRISA_SET
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY-VP
%~ UNIV-RENNES1
%~ INRIA_TEST
%~ CENTRALESUPELEC-SACLAY
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%~ TEST-UR-CSS
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%~ UR1-UFR-ISTIC
%~ IMTA_SRCD
%~ IMT-ATLANTIQUE
%~ IRISA-ADOPNET-IMTA
%~ IRISA_IMTA
Rapport
Anceaume Emmanuelle, Pozzo Antonella Del, Ludinard Romaric, Potop-Butucaru Maria, Tucci-Piergiovanni Sara
Blockchain Abstract Data Type
[Research Report] Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris 6, LIP6, Paris, France. 2018, pp.1-30
Bibtext :
@techreport{anceaume:hal-01718480,
TITLE = {{Blockchain Abstract Data Type}},
AUTHOR = {Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Pozzo, Antonella Del and Ludinard, Romaric and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara},
URL = {https://hal.sorbonne-universite.fr/hal-01718480},
TYPE = {Research Report},
PAGES = {1-30},
INSTITUTION = {{Sorbonne Universit{\'e}, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris 6, LIP6, Paris, France}},
YEAR = {2018},
MONTH = Feb,
KEYWORDS = {consistency criteria ; abstract data type ; blockchain},
PDF = {https://hal.sorbonne-universite.fr/hal-01718480/file/main.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-01718480},
HAL_VERSION = {v2},
}
Endnote :
%0 Report
%T Blockchain Abstract Data Type
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Laboratoire d'Intégration des Systèmes et des Technologies (LIST)
%+ Advanced technologies for operated networks (ADOPNET)
%+ Département Systèmes Réseaux, Cybersécurité et Droit du numérique (IMT Atlantique - SRCD)
%+ Laboratory of Information, Network and Communication Sciences (LINCS)
%+ Networks and Performance Analysis (NPA)
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Pozzo, Antonella Del
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%A Potop-Butucaru, Maria
%A Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
%P 1-30
%I Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Informatique de Paris 6, LIP6, Paris, France
%8 2018-02-18
%D 2018
%Z 1802.09877
%K consistency criteria
%K abstract data type
%K blockchain
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Reports
%X The presented work continues the line of recent distributed computing communityefforts dedicated to the theoretical aspects of blockchains. This paper is the rst tospecify blockchains as a composition of abstract data types all together with a hierarchyof consistency criteria that formally characterizes the histories admissible for distributedprograms that use them. Our work is based on an original oracle-based constructionthat, along with new consistency deffnitions, captures the eventual convergence processin blockchain systems. The paper presents as well some results on implementability ofthe presented abstractions and a mapping of representative existing blockchains fromboth academia and industry in our framework.
%G English
%2 https://hal.sorbonne-universite.fr/hal-01718480v2/document
%2 https://hal.sorbonne-universite.fr/hal-01718480/file/main.pdf
%L hal-01718480
%U https://hal.sorbonne-universite.fr/hal-01718480
%~ CNRS
%~ UNIV-UBS
%~ INRIA-RENNES
%~ INSTITUT-TELECOM
%~ IRISA_SET
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%~ CEA
%~ INRIA_TEST
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%~ DRT
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Communication dans un congrès
Anceaume Emmanuelle, Ludinard Romaric, Potop-Butucaru Maria, Tronel Frédéric
Bitcoin a Distributed Shared Register
SSS 2017 - 19th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems, Nov 2017, Boston, MA, United States. pp.456-468, ⟨10.1007/978-3-319-69084-1_34⟩
Bibtext :
@inproceedings{anceaume:hal-01522360,
TITLE = {{Bitcoin a Distributed Shared Register}},
AUTHOR = {Anceaume, Emmanuelle and Ludinard, Romaric and Potop-Butucaru, Maria and Tronel, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric},
URL = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01522360},
BOOKTITLE = {{SSS 2017 - 19th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems}},
ADDRESS = {Boston, MA, United States},
PUBLISHER = {{Springer}},
SERIES = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
VOLUME = {10616},
PAGES = {456-468},
YEAR = {2017},
MONTH = Nov,
DOI = {10.1007/978-3-319-69084-1\_34},
KEYWORDS = {bitcoin ; formalization ; register ; regularity},
PDF = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01522360/file/sss.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-01522360},
HAL_VERSION = {v2},
}
Endnote :
%0 Conference Proceedings
%T Bitcoin a Distributed Shared Register
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] (ENSAI)
%+ Sorbonne Universités
%+ Networks and Performance Analysis (NPA)
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%A Potop-Butucaru, Maria
%A Tronel, Frédéric
%< avec comité de lecture
%( Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems
%B SSS 2017 - 19th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems
%C Boston, MA, United States
%I Springer
%3 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
%V 10616
%P 456-468
%8 2017-11-05
%D 2017
%R 10.1007/978-3-319-69084-1_34
%K bitcoin
%K formalization
%K register
%K regularity
%Z Computer Science [cs]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Conference papers
%X Distributed Ledgers (e.g. Bitcoin) occupy currently the first lines of the economical and political media and many speculations are done with respect to their level of coherence and their computability power. Interestingly, there is no consensus on the properties and abstractions that fully capture the behaviour of distributed ledgers. The interest in formalising the behaviour of distributed ledgers is twofold. Firstly, it helps to prove the correctness of the algorithms that implement existing distributed ledgers and explore their limits with respect to an unfriendly environment and target applications.%Secondly, it facilitates the identification of the minimal building blocks necessary to implement the distributed ledger in a specific environment. Even though the behaviour of distributed ledgers is similar to abstractions that have been deeply studied for decades in distributed systems no abstraction is sufficiently powerful to capture the distributed ledger behaviour.This paper introduces the Distributed Ledger Register, a register that mimics the behaviour of one of the most popular distributed ledger, i.e. the Bitcoin ledger. The aim of our work is to provide formal guarantees on the coherent evolution of Bitcoin. We furthermore show that the Bitcoin blockchain maintenance algorithm verifies the distributed ledger register properties under strict conditions. Moreover, we prove that the Distributed Ledger Register verifies the regularity register specification. It follows that the strongest coherency implemented by Bitcoin is regularity under strong assumptions (i.e. partial synchronous systems and sparse reads). This study contradicts the common belief that Bitcoin implements strong coherency criteria in a totally asynchronous system. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first one that makes the connection between the distributed ledgers and the classical theory of distributed shared registers.
%G English
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01522360v2/document
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01522360/file/sss.pdf
%L hal-01522360
%U https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01522360
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Communication dans un congrès
Lajoie-Mazenc Thibaut, Ludinard Romaric, Anceaume Emmanuelle
Handling Bitcoin Conflicts Through a Glimpse of Structure
Proceedings of the 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing, Apr 2017, Marrakesh, Morocco. ⟨10.1145/3019612.3019657⟩
Bibtext :
@inproceedings{lajoiemazenc:hal-01634368,
TITLE = {{Handling Bitcoin Conflicts Through a Glimpse of Structure}},
AUTHOR = {Lajoie-Mazenc, Thibaut and Ludinard, Romaric and Anceaume, Emmanuelle},
URL = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01634368},
BOOKTITLE = {{Proceedings of the 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing}},
ADDRESS = {Marrakesh, Morocco},
SERIES = {Proceedings of the 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing},
YEAR = {2017},
MONTH = Apr,
DOI = {10.1145/3019612.3019657},
KEYWORDS = {Blockchain fork ; Design and analysis of algorithms ; Safety ; Bitcoin ; Double-spending attack ; Theory of computation $\rightarrow$ Probabilistic computation},
PDF = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01634368/file/camera-ready-version.pdf},
HAL_ID = {hal-01634368},
HAL_VERSION = {v1},
}
Endnote :
%0 Conference Proceedings
%T Handling Bitcoin Conflicts Through a Glimpse of Structure
%+ Confidentialité, Intégrité, Disponibilité et Répartition (CIDRE)
%+ Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] (ENSAI)
%A Lajoie-Mazenc, Thibaut
%A Ludinard, Romaric
%A Anceaume, Emmanuelle
%< avec comité de lecture
%B Proceedings of the 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing
%C Marrakesh, Morocco
%3 Proceedings of the 32nd ACM SIGAPP Symposium On Applied Computing
%8 2017-04-04
%D 2017
%R 10.1145/3019612.3019657
%K Blockchain fork
%K Design and analysis of algorithms
%K Safety
%K Bitcoin
%K Double-spending attack
%K Theory of computation → Probabilistic computation
%Z Computer Science [cs]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Data Structures and Algorithms [cs.DS]
%Z Computer Science [cs]/Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing [cs.DC]Conference papers
%X Double spending and blockchain forks are two main issues that the Bitcoin crypto-system is confronted with. The former refers to an adversary's ability to use the very same coin more than once while the latter reflects the occurrence of transient inconsistencies in the history of the blockchain distributed data structure. We present a new approach to tackle these issues: it consists in adding some local synchronization constraints on Bitcoin's validation operations, and in making these constraints independent from the native blockchain protocol. Synchronization constraints are handled by nodes which are randomly and dynamically chosen in the Bitcoin system. We show that with such an approach, content of the blockchain is consistent with all validated transactions and blocks which guarantees the absence of both double-spending attacks and blockchain forks.
%G English
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01634368/document
%2 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01634368/file/camera-ready-version.pdf
%L hal-01634368
%U https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01634368
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